OUR RESEARCH


Current Projects

PROJECT: Utility of Comprehensive Assessments in Intervention Processes and Outcomes

*In collaboration with Dr. Janay Sander, Ball State University Department of Educational Psychology

Adolescents receiving residentially-based treatment are particularly vulnerable to experiencing continued difficulties due to the complexity of their needs (Connor et al., 2004). Participating in a comprehensive psychological assessment should increase the youth’s engagement in treatment (Becker et al., 2018) and guide decision making about appropriate interventions (Youngstrom & Van Meter, 2016), which may lead to more positive intervention process and outcomes (Hunsley & Mash, 2018). However, no previous studies have examined these possibilities. As such, using a naturalistic, longitudinal design implemented at a local residential treatment facility, I aim to determine whether adolescents who undergo a standardized comprehensive psychological assessment differ across time from those receiving a standard initial assessment on 1) engagement and 2) outcomes including symptom severity, treatment-interfering behaviors, and adaptive functioning. Practically, results from this work could inform intervention planning and increase intervention and cost effectiveness for adolescents in residential treatment. Study results may also contribute to on-going dialogs about best practices in residential treatment (Dale et al., 2007) and empirically based assessment (Hunsley & Mash, 2018).

 

PROJECT: Examination of the validity of MMPI-A-RF scale scores in a residential treatment center

*In collaboration with Dr. Janay Sander, Ball State University Department of Educational Psychology

Youth in residential treatment experience a wide variety of problems and accurate assessment of their difficulties is necessary to inform treatment. Providers often gather information about a youth with the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – Adolescent (MMPI-A) but its use is limited by problems with length and discriminant validity. An alternative to the MMPI-A is the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent-Restructured Form (MMPI-A-RF), which has fewer items and promising evidence in support of its scores’ validity. Nonetheless, additional research is needed before the MMPI-A-RF can be confidently used in residential settings. To address this need, we aim to: 1) replicate prior postdictive and concurrent validity evidence by studying correlates of MMPI-A-RF scores, 2) examine the degree to which MMPI-A-RF scores predict treatment engagement and response, 3) investigate concurrent validity of MMPI-A-RF scores using other psychological tests as criteria, and 4) determine how well MMPI-A-RF scores contribute to decisions related to differential diagnosis.

 

 

 

PROJECT: Cognitive and Motivational Processes in Comorbid Alcohol and Depressive Disorders

**THIS PROJECT IS CURRENTLY ON HOLD DUE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC.**

Approximately 20 to 25% of individuals with a Depressive Disorder also experience an Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) (e.g., Grant et al., 2004). Research suggests this comorbidity likely arises as a result of the influence of non-disorder specific mechanisms (Lee, in preparation; Slade et al., 2013), but has yet to elucidate these mechanisms or determine if they differ between men and women. As such, Aim One of this study is to use the framework provided by the Cognitive Motivational Theory of Alcohol Use (Finn, 2002) to examine the role of Negative Affectivity, Positive Affectivity, and Executive Working Memory in comorbid AUD and Depressive Disorders. Aim Two is to determine whether these personality and cognitive influences are equally as explanatory for comorbid AUDs and Depressive Disorders in men and women. This study stands to add to the literature regarding why some people experience problems with both depression and alcohol and may suggest potential influences that could be addressed in treatment.

 

PROJECT: Alcohol-Related Decision Making in College Students Who Frequently Drink

**THIS PROJECT IS CURRENTLY ON HOLD DUE TO THE COVID-19 PANDEMIC.**

Previous empirical studies have indicated beliefs and attitudes about alcohol consumption are largely predictive of drinking behaviors (Barnett et al., 2015; Bogg & Finn, 2009; Morean et al., 2015; Senchak, Leonard, & Greene,
1998). Despite the large body of literature on the influence of alcohol-related attitudes and personality variables on drinking decisions, less is known about the influence of mood on drinking decisions. As such, the purpose of the current study is to examine the potential influence of positive and negative mood states on the types of decisions individuals make about consuming alcohol. Specifically, we are interested in examining whether current mood adds incrementally to the prediction of alcohol-related decisions beyond personality traits, attitudes about alcohol, and previous alcohol or substance usage among college students. We hypothesize that personality predispositions towards disinhibition or impulsivity, positive expectations about alcohol consumption, strong motivations to consume alcohol, regular patterns of past alcohol use, misperceptions about drinking norms in collegiate settings, and strong positive or negative mood states will be positively related to frequency and amount of alcohol consumption in hypothetical scenarios presented to participants. This study stands to add to the literature regarding how people make decisions to consume alcohol and may suggest potential influences that could be addressed in prevention or treatment interventions.

Graduate Student Projects

PROJECT: Positive and Negative Urgency: To Lump or Split? An Investigation into Affect Specific Impulsive Action

Colette Delawalla’s Master’s Thesis

Impulsivity is one of the most widely occurring symptoms in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. The UPPS-P Model of Impulsivity suggests the construct reflects: Urgency (positive and negative), (lack of) Perseverance, (lack of) Premeditation, and Sensation-seeking. Arguably the least well understood and most consequential facet of impulsivity is Urgency: the propensity to partake in rash action that is contrary to one’s long-term goals under the influence of intense emotion. Individuals who display this pattern of behavior in response to positive emotions are said to have high standing on positive urgency, while those who do this in response to negative emotions are said to be high on negative urgency. Despite its important role in psychopathology, researchers do not have a clear understanding as to whether these are separate constructs, or two poles of the same dimension. The goal of this thesis is to address this gap by investigating the nomological network of Urgency. 

 

 

 

 


 

Selected Past Work

*denotes graduate student; **denotes undergraduate student

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Sellbom, M., *Butler, J. S., Lee, T. T. C., Loucaides, A. M., Masterson, T. L., & Wygant, D. B. (2021). Construct validity of the E-LSRP in a correctional sample. Assessment. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177/10731911211038619

*Kremyar, A. J. & Lee, T. T. C. (2021). MMPI-3 predictors of anxiety sensitivity and distress intolerance. Assessment. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F10731911211001948

*Hall, J. T., Lee, T. T. C., Friedhoff, L. A., Ajayi, W., & Graham, J. R. (2021). Associations between MMPI-2-RF internalizing RC scales and positive characteristics. Journal of Personality Assessment, 103(1), 1 -9. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2019.1677245

*Argyriou, E. & Lee, T. T. C. (2020). The role of distress and fear transdiagnostic dimensions in emotion regulation choice. Journal of Affective Disorders, 276, 433-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.07.060

Lee, T. T. C., *Taylor, A. M., Holbert, A. M., & Graham, J. R. (2019). MMPI-2-RF predictors of interpersonal relationship characteristics in committed couples. Psychological Assessment, 31(9), 1118 – 1124. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/pas0000735

*Kremyar, A. J., Lee, T. T. C., Ajayi, W., Friedhoff, L. A., & Graham, J. R. (2020). Measuring positive health behaviors and outcomes with low scores on MMPI-2-RF somatic scales. Journal of Personality Assessment, 102(1), 36 -44. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2018.1514311

Lee, T. T. C., Graham, J. R., & Arbisi, P. A. (2018). The utility of MMPI-2-RF scale scores in the differential diagnosis of schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. The Journal of Personality Assessment, 100(3), 305 – 312. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2017.1300906

*Argyriou, E., Davison, C. B., & Lee, T. T. C. (2017). Response inhibition and internet gaming disorder: A meta-analysis. Addictive Behaviors, 71, 54 – 60. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2017.02.026

Tarescavage, A. M., Luna-Jones, L., & Lee, T. T. C. (2017). Bridging the gap between conventional and standardized Competency to Stand Trial (CST) assessments: An examination of defendant answers to conventional CST questions. Law and Human Behavior, 41(6), 530 – 540. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/lhb0000262

Book Chapters & Encyclopedia Entries

Lee, T. T. C., Charles, N. C., *Brown, K. L., & Tennity, C. L. (In Press). Assessment of personality and psychopathology via multi-scale inventories. In M. Sellbom & R. M. Bagby (Eds.), Comprehensive clinical psychology: Assessment. Elsevier.

Lee, T. T. C. (2017). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). In V. Zeigler-Hill & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of personality and individual differences. Springer Press. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-28099-8_914-1

Lee, T. T. C., Sellbom, M., & Hopwood, C. J. (2017). Contemporary psychopathology assessment: Mapping major personality inventories onto empirical models of psychopathology. In S. C. Bowden (Ed.), Neuropsychological assessment in the era of evidence-based practice (pp. 65 – 94). Oxford University Press.

White Papers

Lee, T. T. C., *Morris, N. M., Hanlin, H. R., & Johnson, M. A. (2018). Use of the polygraph with adolescents who have engaged in sexually abusive behavior: A critical review of the empirical bases and ethical issues [White paper]. Indiana Association of Juvenile Sex Offender Practitioners. https://www.in-ajsop.org/Use_of_the_Polygraph_with_Adolescents_2018.pdf

Other Scholarly Contributions

Lee, T. T. C. (2020). Contributor to Y.S. Ben-Porath & A. Tellegen, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-3 (MMPI-3) Technical Manual. University of Minnesota Press.

Books Under Editing

Graham, J. R., Veltri, C. O. C., & Lee, T. T. C. (Under Editing). MMPI Instruments. Assessing Personality and Psychopathology (6th ed.). Manuscript submitted to Oxford University Press.

Manuscripts Under Review

 *Morris, N. M., Lee, T. T. C., Demakis, G.J., & Park, S. (Under Review). Detecting feigned ADHD in college students using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF). Manuscript submitted for publication.

Manuscripts Under Revision

Lee, T. T. C. & Finn, P. R. (Under Revision). Utility of DSM-5 SUD symptom organization for alcohol use disorders. Manuscript to be resubmitted for review.

*Keen, M. A., Lee, T. T. C., & Forbey, J. D. (Under Revision). Examination of the generalizability of underreporting detected by the MMPI-2-RF in a correctional sample. Manuscript to be resubmitted for review.

Professional Conference Presentations (since 2020)

 Lee, T.T. C., *Delawalla, C. N., *Keen, M. A., and Sander, J. B. (2021, June). Mapping the thought dysfunction dimension of psychopathology onto the MMPI-A-RF. In T. Lee (Chair), Mapping MMPI-A-RF scales onto internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction dimensions of HiTOP [Symposium]. The 56th Annual MMPI Symposium, Digital Meeting.

*Delawalla, C. N., *Keen, M. A., Sander, J. B. & Lee, T. T. C. (2021, June). Mapping the externalizing dimension of psychopathology onto the MMPI-A-RF. Paper presentation in T. Lee. (Chair), Mapping MMPI-A-RF scales onto internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction dimensions of HiTOP [Symposium]. The 56th Annual MMPI Symposium, Digital Meeting.

*Keen, M. A., *Delawalla, C. N., Sander, J. B., and Lee, T. T. C. (2021, June). Mapping the internalizing dimension of psychopathology onto the MMPI-A-RF. Paper presentation in T. Lee. (Chair), Mapping MMPI-A-RF scales onto internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction dimensions of HiTOP [Symposium]. The 56th Annual MMPI Symposium, Digital Meeting.

**Brown, J. R., *Keen, M. A., Sander, J. B., & Lee, T. T. C. (2021, June). The MMPI-A-RF Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) and related internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction difficulties in an adolescent residential treatment sample [Poster presentation]. The 56th Annual MMPI Research Symposium, Digital Meeting.

*Mundell, N. L. & Lee, T. T. C. (2021, June). Modeling common types of problematic drinking: Is demoralization a predictor? [Poster presentation]. The 56th Annual MMPI Research Symposium, Digital Meeting.

Lee, T. T. C., *Keen, M. A., & *Delawalla, C. (2021, March). Assessing alcohol-related problems with MMPI-3 scale scores. In M. Sellbom & Y. S. Ben-Porath (Chairs), Research on the MMPI-3 [Symposium]. The 2021 Annual Society for Personality Assessment Conference, Digital Meeting.

*Delawalla, C., *Keen, M. A., & Lee, T. T. C. (2021, March). Relation of MMPI-3 Scales Assessing Disinhibition with Alcohol Use and Problems [Paper presentation]The 2021 Annual Society for Personality Assessment Conference, Digital Meeting.

*Keen, M. A., *Delawalla, C., & Lee, T. T. C. (2021, March). Predicting non-suicidal self-injury and suicidality in adolescents receiving residential treatment using the MMPI-A-RF [Paper presentation]The 2021 Annual Society for Personality Assessment Conference, Digital Meeting.

Kremyar, A. J. & Lee, T. T. C. (2021, March). MMPI-3 Predictors of anxiety sensitivity and distress intolerance [Paper presentation]. The 2021 Annual Society for Personality Assessment Conference, Digital Meeting.

*Keen, M. A., Lee, T. T. C., Arbisi, P. A., *Kasula, K. M., *Butler, J. S., & Sellbom, M. (2020, June). Impact of underreporting on the meaning of elevated MMPI-2-RF RC scale scores [Paper presentation]. The 55th Annual MMPI Research Symposium, Digital Meeting.

Lee, T. T. C., Sander, J. B., Eubank, R. N., *Kasula, K. M., *Keen, M. A., & *Butler, J. S. (2020, June). A preliminary investigation of MMPI-A-RF predictors of therapeutic engagement and responsivity for youth in residential treatment [Paper presentation]. The 55th Annual MMPI Symposium, Digital Meeting.

*Grzywana, J., Lee, T. T. C., Simon-Dack, S., Diaz, A., & Finch, W. H. (2020, May). Validating emotionally driven variations of the N-Back Task [Poster presentation]. The 2020 Meeting of the Midwestern Psychological Association, Chicago, IL. (Conference canceled due to COVID-19 pandemic).

*Kasula, K. M., Sander, J. B., Eubank, R. N., & Lee, T. T. C. (2020, March). An investigation of the psychometric properties of MMPI-A scale scores in a juvenile justice setting [Paper presentation]. The 2020 Society for Personality Assessment Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA. (Conference canceled due to COVID-19 pandemic).

*Butler, J. S., Wygant, D., Lee, T. T. C., Loucaides, A. M., & Sellbom, M. (2020, March). An investigation into the construct validity of the Expanded Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale [Paper presentation]. The 2020 Society for Personality Assessment Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA. (Conference canceled due to COVID-19 pandemic).

*Lemaster, N. M., Lee, T. T. C., Demakis, G., & *Park, S. (2020, March). Detecting feigned ADHD in college students using the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) [Paper presentation]. The 2020 Society for Personality Assessment Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA. (Conference canceled due to COVID-19 pandemic).

*Keen, M. A., Lee, T.T.C., & Forbey, J. D. (2020, March). Examination of the generalizability of underreporting detected by the MMPI-2-RF in a correctional sample [Poster presentation]. The 2020 Society for Personality Assessment Annual Meeting, San Diego, CA. (Conference canceled due to COVID-19 pandemic).

*Mundell, N.L., **Harp, A., **Hasser, A., **Jones, L., **Scott, M., **Sorgenfrei, J., & Lee, T.T.C. (2021, April). Gender differences in MMPI-2-RF scale scores in college students [Paper presentation]. The 2021 Ball State Virtual Student Symposium, Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

Student Conference Presentations (since 2020)

*Delawalla, C.N., **Deitrich, A., **Ramsey, K., **Seward, M., **Small, M., **Thurman, M., & Lee, T.T.C. (2021, April). Exploring impulsivity, negative urgency, and cannabis use disorder in college students [Paper presentation]. The 2021 Ball State Virtual Student Symposium, Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

**Brown, J. R., *Keen, M.A., & Lee, T. T. C. (2021, April). The Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5) and related internalizing, externalizing, and thought dysfunction difficulties in an adolescent residential treatment sample [Paper presentation]. The 2021 Mid-American Undergraduate Psychology Research Conference, Digital Meeting.

**Seaman, A., *Grzywana, J., & Lee, T.T.C. (2020, April). Intolerance of uncertainty and its relation to valence in working memory [Poster presentation]. The 32nd Butler University Undergraduate Research Conference, Indianapolis, IN. (Conference canceled due to COVID-19 pandemic).

*Grzywana, J. (2020, February). The impact of maintaining negative memories on the depressed and anxious brain [Paper presentation]. The 2020 Ball State University Graduate School 3-Minute Thesis Competition, Muncie, IN.

  • Josh was a finalist in the 3-Minute Thesis Competition. This student project was co-advised by Dr. Stephanie Simon-Dack.